Visa “Processing Fees” Collected By Company Related to Tan Sri Al Amin – Part – 2

Left: Tan Sri DR Mohamed Al Amin Abdul Majid.  Right: Dato’ DR Siew Ka Wei. These are the two powerful corporate figures.  Both are DR ok!

Updates on 3-7-2018 at 4 pmYg Bhg Tan Sri Dr Rais Yatim, a former Minister, has called for the dismantling of the companies involving in the visa “processing fees”. They are Ultra Kirana Sdn Bhd ( Wan Quoris Shah and Harry Lee Vui Khiun) and S5 Systems Sdn bhd (Tan Sri DR Al-Amin, the business partner of Dato’ DR Siew Ka Wei), HERE.  Both Tan Sri DR Al Amin and Dato’ DR Siew Ka Wei are also connected to Ancom Bhd and Redberry Media Group. 


Beside Tuan Wan Quoris Shah bin Wan Abdul Ghani, the other prominent player for the visa “processing fees” business is none other than the famous and powerful Tan Sri DR Mohamed Al Amin Abdul Majid (“Tan Sri Al Amin”).  He is the business partner of Dato’ DR Siew Ka Wei (“Dato’ DR Siew”).  Tan Sri Al Amin appears prominently behind the company S5 Systems Sdn Bhd (“S5 Systems”) and NSA Technology Sdn Bhd (“NSA Technology”).  The relationship between S5 Systems, NSA Technology and Tan Sri AL Amin will be discussed in greater details below.

For the background of the “Visa Processing” business, please read Part 1, HERE.

To digress a little.  Tan Sri Al Amin’s business partner, Dato’ DR Siew is the Chairman of Tourism Malaysia (“TM”), Executive Chairman of Ancom Bhd and MD of Redberry Media Group.

Recently TM was embroiled in the scandalous “Speedy Gonzales” RM99.693 million Geeko Tech Sdn Bhd (“Geeko”).  Geeko is a “special purpose vehicle” for … .  The “Speedy Gonzales” deal was evaluated, negotiated and sealed within one day (4 April 2018).  At the material time Geeko was not registered with Ministry of Finance.

Ms Elizabeth Ken TzuYing is the CEO of Geeko Tech Sdn Bhd and media Specialist of Redberry Media Group, whose MD is Dato’ DR Siew Ka Wei.

Ms Elizabeth Ken is the CEO of Geeko.  Ms Elizabeth Ken is also the Media Specialist of Redberry Media Group, which is connected to Dato’ DR Siew.

Dato’ DR Siew and his business partner, Tan Sri Al Amin, were extremely capable, powerful corporate men up to May 9 (14th GE) and are still politically very well connected to BN.  Both of them have interest in the biggest newspapers in Asia, Malay Mail.  Malay Mail also has the best editor in Asia, he is none other than Datuk Wong Sai Wan, who is also a director of companies related to Dato’ Dr Siew.

Several companies connected to both of them have been awarded with exclusive advertising contracts in our airports and other public places.  Can someone help with more information about these exclusive contracts?

Titanium Compass Sdn Bhd is one of the companies which was awarded with a 10 years exclusive contract for advertising in trains and MRT stations for the Kajang Line.  Please read HERE.

For background story of the scandalous “Speedy Gonzales” RM99.693 million deal, please read HERE, HERE, HERE, HERE & HERE.


The “Visa Prolcessing” One Stop Center (“OSC”)

Datuk Alias Ahmad, the then Director-General of Immigration Department. Thereafter, he was the Secretary of Majlis Keselamatan Negara (“MKN”).  On 25 May 2018 he retired as the Secretary General of Ministry of Education, HERE.


In August 2012, the then Director-General of Immigration Department, Yg Bhg Datuk Alias Ahmad was already promoting the “special services” provided by Ultra Kirana Sdn Bhd (“Ultra Kirana”).  During this time, he went to Beijing “One Stop Center” (“OSC”) of Ultra Kirana to officiate or endorse it.

In 2011 Ultra Kirana and its Chinese began to offer the visa processing services in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Kunming and Hong Kong.  Ultra Kirana or OSC only task was to key in the data and scan the passport of the applicants.  This process took about 10 seconds to do.   In 2011 Beijing “OSC” processed an average of 1,000 applicants while in Guangzhou 3,000 daily. It was charging 150 Yuan (S$30) about RM100 each.

For full report of what Datuk Alias Ahmad had said, please read HERE.

From Datuk Alias Ahmad’s statement, the Beijing and Guangzhou OSCs alone the daily collections in 2011 was RM400,000.00 (4,000 X RM100).  How about the collections from the OSCs in Kunming, Shanghai, Dubai, Nepal, India, Vietnam, Myanmar, Philippine, Abu Dhabi, Pakistan, USA, Cambodia and many more countries?


On 5 March 2018, the then Deputy PM and Minister of Home Affairs, YB Dato YB Dr Ahmad Zahid Hamidi had told Parliament that “more than 700,000 visas have been issued to visitors from 10 countries entering Malaysia”, HERE.  Surely as the Minister of Home Affairs he had the total numbers but he chose to hide it for fear of Malaysians will know the truth how much Ultra Kirana and S5 Systems were profiting yearly.

If we assumed the 700,000 eVISA was the correct figure, the collection of processing fees was RM70 million (700,000 X RM100).  Yours truly believe the total numbers was very much higher than the 700,000 given. If we were to take the figure from only the total number of Chinese tourists travelling to Malaysia, they were easily more than a million a year! Therefore, the total sum collected in eVisa “Processing Fees” yearly should be easily more than RM100 million yearly!  Yours truly believe that the figure is many billion Ringgit!  It is a big business syndicate.

The “visa processing” is the most lucrative business in the world where the time taken and cost are very minimal but the profit is colossal!  Why should this so-called “Visa Processing Service”, which will take no more than 10 seconds for each applicant, be awarded to private companies, which are politically connected?

If the Government feels that this “visa processing” is necessary it could be done by the Immigration Department and the fees charged will go to the government. Ultimately the rakyat will get the benefits. Now the Government gets nothing.


How are Ultra Kirana, Tan Sri Al Amin’s S5 Systems & NSA Technology Connected To The Collection of “Visa Processing Fees”?

Of course, this matter is not as simple as what we think. The collection of Visa “processing fees” has been backed by certain big boys in Ministry of Home Affairs, when it was under BN.  Yours truly believes that these  activities have been going on well before 2012.

The visa “processing fees” project is not in the best interest of Malaysia but the companies like Ultra Kirana, S5 Systems and NSA Technology.  The Chinese tourists have not increased drastically as promised but moving downwards. Hence, the then PM Datuk Najib had to announce in his Budget 2016 the implementation of “Visa Free” Programe to attract more Chinese tourists. But the Visa Free program did not help Malaysia much because of the charging of the visa processing fees, which is sanctioned by the Ministry of Home Affairs, came in different form.

Malaysia has been facing a stiff competition with our neighbouring countries like Thailand and Indonesia to attract Chinese visitors.  Indonesia has a visa free programme and the Chinese tourists have increased by many folds. Thailand has a Visa On Arrival Programe and the Chinese tourists have also increased too. Tourists need not pay such “Visa Processing Fees” like they have to if they travel to  Malaysia.

Prior to the implementation of the Visa Free Programe for Chinese tourists,  they will have to apply for Visa and paid a processing to the OSC operates by Ultra Kirana. When the Visa Free Programe was implemented , the Immigration Department was in great pain in devising a scheme to make kit difficult for Choinese tourist to enjoy the Visa Free Programe by imposing condition for eligibility like they must travel in a group of 20. When here were protest about the condition, it was reduced to a group of 5 and have to go appointed travel agents to be eligible for the Visa Free Programe. There were protests from the travel industries in China and Malaysia.

Certain high ranking officer in the Immigration Department were creative and they came out with the programe known as “System of Electronic Visa” (“eVisa”).

The then Minister of Home Affairs, YB Dr Datuk Ahmad Zahid Hamidi is a very conscientious minister indeed. When the Visa Free programe was announced during the said Budget 2016, he went into overdrive to promote the eVisa programe instead of the Visa Free Programe for Chinese tourists. Of course, under eVisa Programe processing fees have to be paid to Ultra Kirana, S5 Systems who collaborate with other companies in overseas to run the OSCs.


2nd Left:  ex-Deputy PM & Home Minister, YB Datuk Seri Dr Ahmad Zahid Hamidi looks at process of System of Electronic Visa (e-Visa) when he visited OSC Visa Malaysia in Beijing. 3rd Left: Malaysia Ambassador to China, Datuk Zainuddin Yahya.  Extreme Right: Tuan Wan Quoris Shah bin Wan Abdul Ghani, one of the key players in the “Processing Fees” business. 

Tuan Wan Quoris Shah Bin Wan Abdul Ghani. According to a report by Mr Danny Lim, he is a known lieutenant of YB Khairy Jamludin (aka “KJ”)

In May 2018 SSM Report, Tuan Wan Quoris Shah Bin Abdul Ghani has increased his personal shareholding in Ultra Kirana to 200,000 shares. He became the single biggest shareholder in Ultra Kirana.  Rumour has it that he is a “self made” millionaire with a fleet of sport cars and etc and many of his friends looked upon him as an icon!

The other indirect shareholder of Ultra Kirana through HRL Capital Sdn Bhd is MR HARRY LEE VUI KHIUN.  Rumour has it that he is quite an operator in the stock market.


Directives From Ministry of Home Affairs In November 2014

On 6 November 2014, the Secretary General of Ministry of Home Affairs issued a directive with regards to the said eVisa system. A few companies have been appointed. They are Ultra Kinrana, S5 Systems, Profound Radiance Sdn Bhd.



Immigration letter page 2


Page 3 Letter signed by Yg Bhg Dato’ Seri Mohamad Khalid bin Hj Shariff, the then DG of  Director General of Ministry of Home Affairs to DG of Immigration & KSU of Ministry of Foreign Affiars.


Lampiran ‘A”


Please see page 2 of the letter from KSU Ministry of Home Affairs where it states:

“Pemeriksaan tapisan ISC boleh dibuat di pusat-pusat fasiliti ISC di lokasi-lokasi strategik yang disediakan oleh pengadali ISC iaitu Syarikat S5 Systems Sdn Bhd (S5 Systems). …”

“ISC” is Immigration Security Clearance.

A private company has a special function to perform “Immigration Security Clearance”?  Does it mean that S5 Systems has access to the data bank in Bukit Aman?  Yours truly does not believe that Bukit Aman allow a private company to have access to its data bank to carry out the task of “Immigration Security Clearance”.


S5 Systems Sdn Bhd (S5 Systems)

S5 Systems is an outfit control by Dato’ Dr Siew Ka Wei’s business partner, Tan Sri  (Dr) Mohamed Al Amin Abdul Majid.


SSM Report On S5 Systems Sdn Bhd

SSM Report S5 Systems’ List Of Diretors

Tan Sri Al-Amin is the director of S5 Systems from 2009, 3 years after the inception of S5 Systems.


SSM Report On S5 Systems’ List of Shareholders


S5 Systems Sdn Bhd has only one shareholder.


SSM Report of The Annual Account for S5 Systems for 2016


S5 Systems has a cash paid up capital of 102,000 of RM1.00 each and RM18.270 million non-cash.  According to the Annual Account of S5 Systems, its revenue for 2016 was RM54.092 million. This company is in the very able hands of Tan Sri Al Amin up to May 9, 2018!


NSA Technology Sdn Bhd (“NSA Technology”) is the sole shareholder of S5 Systems. Lets examine NSA Technology.


SSM Report Of NSA Technology Sdn Bhd (“NSA Technology”) – The Sole Shareholder of S5 Systems.

SSM Report NSA Technology in May 2018




NSA Technology List of Shareholders


NSA Technology Sdn Bhd’s shareholder is NSA Technology (L) Inc.

PH Government will have to investigate who are the actual shareholders in the off-shore company, NSA Technology (L) INC.


NSA Technology Sdn Bhd’s 2016 Annual Accounts

NSA Technology is the sole shareholder of S5 System Sdn Bhd. NSA Tenology (L) Inc may be an off-shore company. NSA Technology has a paid up capital of RM800,000.00.

NSA Technology’s nature of business is:  Retailing of fashionable apparels and accessories and investment holding.

A company dealing in fashionable apparels and accessories has special interests in providing Visa “Processing Services”. 

If you are to look at its Annual Accounts for 2017, its “Retained Earning” was RM84,097,968.00, “Revenue” RM87, 521, 590.00.  A copy with a paid up capital of only RM800,000.00 was doling so well. It must be doing well in the Visa Processing Service through S5 System or in its fashionable apparels and accessories business. One wonders?

The other company involved int he visa processing business is Profound Radiance Sdn Bhd. Please see the Lapiran “A” of the above letter dated 6 November 2014 from Ministry of Home Affairs.

SSM Report of Profound Radiance Sdn Bhd – List of Directors


SSM Report on Listy of Shareholders


Yours truly is not familiar with the directors and shareholders of Profound Radiance Sdn Bhd. Perhaps some of the readers of this blog may be able to help.


The Council of Eminent Persons Is Investigating the “Visa Processing” Companies

Yours truly is pleased to learn that The Council Of Eminent Persons (“CEP”) has taken the initiative to investigate into this so-called “Visa Processing” business.

The CEP should investigate how the companies like Ultra Kirana and S5 System (the keys players behind these two companies Tuan Quoris Shah, Mr Harry Lee Vui Khiun and Tan Sri Al-Amin) were the preferred companies for carrying out this so-called “visa processing” business.  The CEP should also investigate the other shareholder in Ultra Kirana, that is  HRL Capital Sdn Bhd which holding 150,000 shares.  HRL Capital Sdn Bhd has two shareholders, the two brothers from Sabah namely Mr Paul Lee Vui Yung and Mr Harry Lee Vui Khiun. Rumour has it that Mr Harry Lee Vui Khiun is politically well connected to BN.

It is not inner nation best interest to allow the collection of visa processing fees to continue.  The PH Government should immediately suspend the collections of the visa “processing fees” pending the probe by CEP.  Once it is suspended, yours truly believes Malaysia will see the tourists coming to Malaysia will increase by hundred of thousands if not million without having to spend much on advertising.

Stay tuned.














30 thoughts on “Visa “Processing Fees” Collected By Company Related to Tan Sri Al Amin – Part – 2

    1. Hamdan nawi

      Bro choo keong… The $100 fee is the official charge… My besan.. Mother of my DIL… has to fork out more than $350 to visit her new born cucu… That with some help fr fren… If not.. can touch $500..
      That is $$350mil bro!!!

  1. Anonymous

    This is daylight robbery. Processing fees collection of RM400K – RM500k is far too much and done at the expense of cur country. It deter tourists from coming to Malaysia. This must be stopped immediately. Alamin is a crony of Najib.

  2. Johan

    TS Alamin is the top crony of Najib. He should be investigated for all the deals that Redberry and other companies under Ancom that have been awarded with big exclusive contracts. Alamin you are screwed this time.

    Datuk Wong Sai Wan could not even string a sentence let alone be the best editor in Asia. He was kicked out from the Star and ran to Siew Ka Wei for job. All the rejects are in Malay Mail. I heard that Malay Mail is dloing so badly that it will close shop in July. Padan muka la.

  3. Anonymous

    No need to appoint the MO1’s cronies to operate the visa processing jog. Malaysia does not visa processing nonsense from Ultra Kirana or S5 Systems for them to make money at our expense. Their services should be terminated immediately. I agree with YB that if we need to charge the processing let immigration Department charges it not by companies operated by Wan Quoris and Alamin. Get MACC to investigate how the loots have been shared.

  4. Zak

    Siew and Alamin are 2 top cronies of Najib. Both must be investigated. Geeko and this visa processing are the questionable deals. Hope MACC will move in. These bloody crooks must be dealt with properly and throw the keys.

  5. Anonymous

    Hello, Siew Ka Wei, how is your spare tyre Elizabeth getting on? We heard you have tendered your resignation letter to TM but no announcement. Now you know how to feel malu! When you were pressing for the Geeko deal to go through you don’t know how to feel malu. Now your good friend also doing the same nonsense as you: visa processing fees. Sudah las it is money processing company! PTUI! No self respect. One call himself a Dato another Tan Sri. Both of these title can be found in the long kang! I hope that SPRM will get both of you.

  6. Chuah

    Why TS Alamin and Siew Ka Wei are so quiet? Is it true that TS Alamin is the chief cashier for MO1? All the contracts awarded to Titanium Compass Sdn Bhd, Utama Meru and other companies related to these two must be terminated unless it was awarded vie transparent open tender.

    The Visa Processing Fee involving Ultra Kirana, S5 Systems and Profound Radiance must be stopped because it was set up for these cronies to rake in tons of money. It is no good for our tourism. The CEP must call in MACC to investigate about the Visa Processing nonsense.

  7. Chong

    Hamdan Nawi

    Please help PH Government by getting your besan to lodge a report with MACC or police. We must stop this syndicate in doing things against our national interest. We must not take it lying down. They have made too much money. Its is now time for them to face the music.

  8. Anon

    Siew Ka Wei supposed to have resigned but no announcement. Still rindu about the Geeko deal? Forget about the Geeko deal. Just dal with Elizabeth at night. Cukup la. Alamin please stop your visa processing nonsense. Both of you are screwing up this country big time. We hope both you rot in hell!

  9. Rosli

    Where are Alamin and Siew Ka Wei nowadays? Tak boleh lansi lagi kan? Alamin, you better voluntarily stop the bullshit Visa Processing business before MACC going after you! I hope that both of you are part of the 900 bank accounts that been frozen!

  10. Abdullah

    The visa processing scheme should be abolished. It was a scheme for the UMNO cronies to make money. They make the huge sum of monies at the expense of the nation. We have lost many Chinese tourists to Indonesia and Thailand. Ultimately we have lost the tourist dollars. Wan Quoris, Alamin and Siew Ka Wei must be put into Sungei Buluh Resort as soon as possible and throw away the keys.

  11. Othman

    MACC must get Wan Quoris, Alamin and Siew Ka Wei to declare their assets then they will shit bricks. They were so arrogant when MO1 was in power. Now they are like Tikus walking around with their tails between their legs. They are 30,000 computers lying around in Sewerage Siew’s company. Sewerage Siew could do charity by giving away instead of selling to the government.

  12. Romad

    Tq,for the very comprehensive detailing of this very shameful organised and patronised misuse and abuse of connections and daylight robbery of national assets and revenue.
    My deep appreciation to the team that uncovered this filth and expose the corporate pirates who has been strutting around,shamelessly in sea of fraud and deceits.
    Lets hope the perpetrators spend long periods in confinements and their ill gotten gains repossessed,monetised and use for needs of Rakyats.
    Well those who put all the infos and facts into easily readable form for us to follow .
    Thank you.

  13. The Corporate Con-man

    The cronies like Alamin, Wan Quoris and Siew Ka Wei should be exposed to the max. Make them embarrassed. Viral the posting concerning this visa processing fees scandal. Pls lodge reports with police or MACC if you knew of their scandals. This is to make sure that MACC will not spare them.

  14. Ramly KDN

    The PH government should abolish the processing fees then investigate into how this scheme of processing fees business was matched and implemented. I know it was at the tail end of Pak Lah’s time. So it was no surprised that the son in law was involved and his runner Wan Quoris. It was so lucrative. Of course, you can not leave out the crony no 1, Alamin.

    PH Govt should not allow these cronies to fool them by saying that the foreign countries need Ultra Kirana and S5 Systems to help with the security. What a Bullshit! That was how Zahid Hamidi fooled Malaysians.

    Once the processing fees is abolished the tourists numbers will increase automatically. Tourists are fed up of being treated as fools.

  15. Mokthar

    There must be an in-depth investigation into these 3 – Sikew Ka Wei, Alamin and Wan Quoris. For Wan Quoris, please check with Ministry of Youth and Sports. THe companies related to him got many projects. Companies related to Alamin & Siew Ka Wei have been given many projects too. Check them out and terminate them.

  16. Thye

    If Malaysia is serious in wanting to attract tourists then the processing fees must be abolished immediately. If the govt feel that processing fees is necessary then the fees to be collected by the govt. The government must not allow private companies controlled by cronies – Ultra Kirana or S5 Systems. The best is for PH govt to abolish it now. Don’t waste any more time suspend the collection of the processing fees immediately and investigate into them and the director like Wan Quoris, Harry Lee, Tan Sri Alamin. The charging of processing fees is daylight robbery. The scheme was set up for them to make money.

  17. Anti Crony

    MACC must get Wan Quoris, Dato Siew Ka Wei and TS Alamin to declare their assets. These culprits must be brought to book. They must not be allowed to enjoy the looted. If Najib can be charged, why should these cronies be spared.

  18. Bloody Con Man

    Dato Siew: How is your media specialist Elizabeth getting on? She must be a real specialist too advice you about media especially in the night! It is a known fact in the industry that Elizabeth is your playmate ok. Don’t give us the bullshit that she is the CEO of Geeko and has got nothing to do with you.

  19. Arisia

    We are losing our Indian Sub Continent tourist business to Indonesia which is giving FREE visa on arrival, big time. All stakeholders from hotels to local restaurants / guides are the losers. We need very urgent action to be taken on this serious matter if what is reported is true.

  20. Daud

    Collecting processing by Ultra Kirana, S5 Systems, Profound Radiance are unacceptable. To allow them to carry on collecting money under the guise of processing fees from tourists amounted to extortion and it is against our national interests. Stop it now.

  21. Anonymous

    For the sake of our national interest, Tan Sri Muhydin should instruct KDN to immediately terminate Ultra Kirana, S5r systems and other companies from collecting the visa processing fees. MACC should be called in to investigate how they have managed to fool Malaysians all these years. Harry Lee Vui Khiun, Wan Quoris and TS Alamin should be investigated. Of course, this visa business cannot go on for so long and untouchable if without the internal help from the officers in KDN – Immigration. Dato’ Armizan is very closed to Harry Lee Vui Khiun. Both are from Tawau, Sabah.

  22. joseph

    Now that their boss kena charged for CBT and money laundering. When will his macai like Alamin and Siew Ka wei will follow suit???? Cannot wait for that day to come.

  23. Han

    PH govt must abolish this get rich scheme (processing fees for visa) for the BN cronies and investigate into how the money was distributed!

  24. Anonymous

    Another scandal concerning the Visa Processing business involving Bestinet Sdn Bhd. It is all connected to Ultra Kirana Sdn Bhd. In order to know the nonsense in this business, is for the government to get hold of the 2 brothers Harry Lee and Anthony Lee from Tawau, Sabah. These two are the master minds. Once you get hold of the two brother and Datuk Amizan also from Tawau, the former KSU of KDN, then you will get the hold story.

  25. Chiang

    If the PH is serious in investigation this visa processing scandal, it will have to start from Ultra Kirana dn Bhd and its initial shareholders. YB Wee had already pointed out that Harry Lee Vui Khiun and his brother Anthony Lee. These two must be called up for statement first then go after Tan Sri Al-Amin and then Bestinet Sdn Bhd, Bukti Mega Sdn Bhd and etc. Get the two brothers from Tawau, Harry and Anthony Lee.

  26. Anonymous

    Who’s is th Chairman of Genovasi Foundation?
    Who owns Genovasi University
    Who owns Genovasi University College?
    July 19, 2017 @ 7:20pm
    PUTRAJAYA: Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Razak today announced that Genovasi Malaysia has received approval from the Higher Education Ministry to establish Genovasi University College (GUC).

    Najib said GUC would be a design-thinking dedicated university focusing on the ‘fourth Industrial Revolution’.

    “This will enable Genovasi Malaysia to reach out to a wider audience and position Malaysia as a hub to promote design thinking.

    “This aligns with other initiatives such as the Design Thinking Association of Malaysia which, among others, looks to expand Genovasi and design thinking into the Asean region,” he said at the ‘Cultivating a Thinking Culture’ showcase today.

    Also present were Education Minister Datuk Seri Mahdzir Khalid, Minister in the Prime Minister’s Department Datuk Seri Nancy Shukri, Agensi Inovasi Malaysia chief executive officer Datuk Mark Rozario and Genovasi Malaysia Sdn Bhd chief executive officer Datuk Lee Yew Meng.

    The prime minister also announced that nine out of 10 pilot schools from the International Baccalaureate-registered (IB) Middle Years Programme (IBMYP) had received the IB World School accreditation.

  27. Pingback: CEO HRD Corp Shahul Hameed ‘Kaki Paw’ 30% terbongkar! – Freemalaysiabaru

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.