AirAsia shouldn’t delay to terminate all its agreements with MAS

It is only fair that AAX should also return its Sydney route to MAS. Pic: 4th from left, YB Tan Sri Rafidah Aziz, the chairman of AAX Sdn Bhd

“Low-cost carrier AirAsia Bhd wants to opt out of all joint-venture agreements with national carrier Malaysia Airlines (MAS), a source says. AirAsia decided at a board meeting last week that it would seek to terminate its agreements with MAS soon, according to the source, in HERE.

The above statement was a joke of the century! AirAsia (AA) is in no position to be so arrogant. It got to where it is today because it was spoon fed by the Badawi’s administration. Within a short span of time, LCCT was built almost exclusively for AirAsia.

From 2002 to 31-3-2008 AA owed MAHB for services and airport tax totaling RM110 million in HERE.

In 2004 LCCT was built by the Badawi’s Government at a cost of about RM87 million and in 2008 LCCT was renovated at a cost of about  RM124 million. The total cost of LCCT was more than RM200 million. The initial contract to build LCCT and the subsequent renovation were all given to Syarikat Pembinaan Fajar Baru (Rembau) Sdn Bhd (now known as Fajar Baru Builders Sdn Bhd), which has no experience in building airport in 2004, in HERE.

In March 2006 under the “Domestic Rationalisation” exercise MAS had to give up more than 90 routes and the Rural Air Services (RAS) for Sabah and Sarawak to AirAsia, which it subsequently sub-contracted to Fly Asian Express Sdn Bhd aka FAKS, in HERE.

The Badawi Administration subsequently granted AirAsia a subsidy of RM250 million, which was more than double of the subsidy given to MAS, in HERE.

After about a year, FAKS had to give up RAS because of too many complaints of its poor services by the people of Sabah, Sarawak and its respective Tourism Boards and State Governments, in HERE.

After giving up RAS, FAKS changed its name to AA X Sdn Bhd. Despite the many complaints against FAKS/AAX Sdn Bhd, AAX Sdn Bhd was allowed by the Badawi Administration to keep the Air Operation Certificate (AOC).

After the infamous MAS-AirAsia share swap, which was reported to be the brain child of the little Napoleons in Khazanah and brokered by En Mohammed Rashdan Yusuf aka Danny, in HERE, MAS had to make many sacrifices under the name of “Cost Cutting”.

  • It started with the sponsorship of QPR costing MAS over RM10 million.
  • The termination of profitable Firefly jet services from JB to KK and Kuching.
  • The Firefly JET Services expansion, which will be in direct competition with AirAsia, was prematurely stopped.
  • Termination of MAS profitable routes to Bandung, Surabaya, Dubai, Johannesburg an etc. AirAsia immediately scheduled an additional flight to Bandung and its fare was increase to almost double due to the monopoly.
  • PlaneConsult, the AirAsia’s consultant, was appointed by MAS, in HERE.
  • Shane Nollan of PlaneConsult was appointed to the post of Acting Commercial Director of MAS.
  • En Rozman Omar of AirAsia, was appointed CFO of MAS and En Azhari Dahlan also from AirAsia was appointed as Head of Engineering, in HERE.
  • In February/March 2012 MAS had to start uplifting 35,000 AAX passengers initially with no Re-accommodation Agreement. The Re-accommodation Agreement was only signed at the end of March 2012 where extremely low fares were charged by MAS, in HERE.
  • MAS gave up the additional Sydney route to AAX, which was granted exclusively for MAS for 1 year.

Luckily the said share swap was reversed under the directives of YAB PM Dato’ Sri Najib on 2-5-2012.

Despite the share swap been reversed, on 7-5-2012 Tan Sri Tony Fernandes (Tony) and Datuk Kamarudin Meranun (Kamarudin) both from Tune Air Sdn Bhd and AirAsia saw it fit to exercise their privilege for free First Class travel to London MAS. Their directorships in MAS were by virtue of them being appointed as directors of MAS as a result of the share swap. Please read HERE.

Both Tony and Kamarudin were directors of MAS from 9-8-2011 until 2-5-2012, a total of 10 months. It would appear that both of them must have been given confidential documents for discussion during MAS Board meeting and obtained confidential documents or information pertaining to the operations of MAS and Firefly during the said period.

In view of the latest development where AA wants to opt out of all agreements with MAS, which will be most welcomed by MAS staffs and other stakeholders, TF and Kamarudin are duty bound to immediately surrender all privileges given to them and surrender all confidential documents or information pertaining to the operations of MAS and Firefly that may be in their possession. They should also cause AA or AAX Sdn Bhd to return all routes that MAS gave to them, terminate the Re-accommodation Agreement with MAS, reimburse MAS of the RM10 million that MAS paid for the QPR sponsorship and etc.  This is expected from responsible corporate leaders.

On the other hand, AJ and the Board of Directors of MAS should commence an in-depth review of all the decisions that have been made after the share swap especially the termination of Firefly jet services, MAS profitable routes to Bandung, Surabaya, Dubai, rescheduling of its flights to the cities in China and the Re-accommodation Agreement to uplift 35,000 AAX passengers. If the said decisions were found to be made not in the best interest of MAS, then AJ must take immediate steps to reinstate or terminate them forthwith.

Please read also Typical Low Caste Carrier.

19 thoughts on “AirAsia shouldn’t delay to terminate all its agreements with MAS

  1. Clueless AJ

    Agree AA should immediately terminate all its agreemnts with MAS especially the Re-accommodation agreement to uplift its 35,000 passengers at very low cost fares. Just imagine fare to London cost RM1,111!

    AJ look for a way out to terminate the RA as it is not in the best interest of MAS. MAS is definitely lost money to uplift the 35,000 passengers. Wake up clueless AJ.



    The incompetent and belligerent leadership

    of Mat najib is clearly bursting at the seams

    when we see how MAS is allowed to degenerate

    into a laughing stock ‘zimbabwe-class’ airline.

    Look all the money wasting effort-sponsoring

    a club on the verge of relegation [to the

    coca-cola championship] , helping to undertake

    passengers for profit-making Air Asia at

    a great loss to itself and loosing valuable customers

    at the same time.

    Wow, it does not speak well at all what kampong -minded

    Mat Najib can actually deliver as a chief

    executive of 1- Malaysia!

    And to overpay Mat Jo 0.25 million MYR monthly is a gross

    overpayment of the man’s ablity and competence. I doubt if

    his last salary is within 20 per cent of his current salary.

    It would reasonable to expect that if a man is paid MYR 0.25

    million/mo he would bring in at least 20 times that amount

    of profit to the company/mo !

    It would appear that an effort is made to drive the valuation

    of Mas share to a couple of dimes is made thru the series of

    planned blundering decisions. A belligerent attitude towards

    managing national assets…. The last time the Malaysia leadership

    was deemed belligent , it resulted in the devaluation of the MYR!

    At least that was the comment of Alan Greenspan the Fed chief soon after

    our currency collapsed.


    Is this a national progression of the rot from the top

    that Madey had been saying..

    Dolah Mat Mata layu took for himself the Mas Catering.

    So does these series of belligerent actions mean

    that Najib is taking Mas minus the Catering division?

    A second currency devaluation would be imminent if country

    continues to carry on with these belligerent management style.

    The landed assets had presumably been distributed ..




  3. hazrin

    Alhamdulilah!!!!!! I hope that AA and the Pariah will terminate all the agreements with MAS especially the Re-accommodation agreement charging low low cost fares to fly premier airline. Kalau si Pariah adalah anak jantan, batal RA degan MAS dengan segera.

    The Sleepy AJ please wake up and stop allowing the Pariah to treat MAS like shit. You are the worst CEO MAS ever had. Other previous CEo may not be good but at least they have stood up against the Pariah.

    Look at Idris Jala, he withdrawn all privilege for the Pariah to fly MAS. Only the Sleepy AJ is still allowing the pariah to take advantage of MAS after the share suap was reversed.

    How MAS going to be well when you are a Sleepy CEO and Adviser at the same time. Both are on gaji buta!

  4. Omar MAS

    Aj why are you waiting for now. Since the pariah wants to terminate the joint venture agreements with MAS. just say yes and at the same time terminate all the other agreements too. Terminate the RA immediately and see whether the big mouth Pariah can still talk. They will get an immediate headache.

    AJ please be the CEO of MAS and not just a kuncu of the pariah. Terminate the RA now. Get rid of the botak Azhari the few left over of the pariah’s kuncu.

  5. Anti Pariah

    Since pariah is calling it a day with MAS then MAS shouldn’t waste more time with them. Throw out the AA remnant in MAS like Azhari Dahlan, Nor Zalida Ahmad.

    Cancel the RA with AAX. Left them go and look for another airline that can give them the extreme low fares like to London cost only Rm1,100.

    Aj you shouldn’t have signed such an agreement in the first place. May be you are too busy travelling to London and back.


    As I have stated in an earlier posting regarding the depature of Danny, again it is time for a gentle reminder for MAS staff not to be overly “celebratory” if it is true that AA wants to end all “collaborations” with us. Let us pause to ponder what has happened these 11 months. Let us evaluate objectively what the last 11 months have done to us. At the risk of sounding dramatic, it is reasonable to believe that , now, more than any other time in our history, MAS is extremely vulnerable , fragile and weak. Our former collaborators are now our competitors again, but this time, with a very HUGE and potentially fatal (to MAS) difference – AA had access to, and was privy to, all MAS’s trade secrets , practices and strategies, even the pre-booking status for all sectors for at least 300 days ahead , its pricing strategies, and through PlaneConsult and the other consultants swarming around, all operational information as well. It is safe to state that they know all our strengths and all our weaknesses. We are laid bare. Unless AJ and team, even the BoD, have new ideas and strategies to play the new game in a totally new playing field, we are dead in the water. From our observations of recent developments , from the change of flight slots to Beijing and HongKong, and even with the rather over-hyped but under-delivered introduction of the A380, we are left with the distinct impression that it is all very stale. The much touted “game changers” in the Business Plan remain hypotheses that have yet to be translated into workable, realistic action plans. There still is no organisation structure in place that is designed to drive the Business Plan (which btw is stale as well, but what the heck). As for the “foundations” to drive the Business Plan, termed “Winning Organisation” , based on the development of the people, the continuous improvement initiatives, talent identification and development etc, all people related, what have we seen so far? The HC division, tasked with spearheading this, is busy with their own internal “reorganising” which of course will result in more promotions for its own people, and the sustained in-breeding, will undoubtedly assure us of one thing which will result – NOTHING. The total exit of AA is merely the end of an “infection”, but the internal cancer remains rampant, prevalent throughout the organsation, and unless major curative treatment options are quickly adopted, MAS will meet its inevitable end.

  7. jack1960

    Legal minefield laid within all the collaboration agreements!


    I believe there are very real issues affecting the process of terminating all the collaborative agreements that will cost MH dearly without swift intervention by the government. The architects to these agreements must be brought back to unwind the relevent clauses failing which the full force of the law must be brought to bear on them. The MH & Tune Air BODs, Khazanah & the MOT must be held responsible.

    If not, its going to take an eternity & that would spell doom for MH.

  8. GE Man

    The theory is simple , AA will only terminate all joint-venture agreements with MAS once all mission is accomplish by the remnant of pariah armies in MAS. 

    >>>Complete the uplifting of 35,000 AAX passengers , so that the passengers wont sue AAX .

    >>>Sign few one sided 10-20 years multi billion ringgit contract with few favourite MRO service providers so that MAS is not competitive for the next 10-20 years. 
    i.e (Next 10-20 years MAS will be very busy plugging the leaks they have created so that MAS will lost focus on the business running an airlines).

    Once contract is sign, MAS will pay a fortune if MAS wanted terminate it (No termination clause !!!) 

    Here is a clear cut example and an up date , please recap on my previous write up . 
    Ref item (16) , A330 PBTH in which Azhari issued LOI to LHT first then ask BTC’s (BOD Tender Committee’s)   approval . 
    The BTC (BOD Tender Committee)  meeting was held on 25 July / Wed /Morning , NO other BTC committee turn up except AJ and Rozman to make decision and approval, what a scandal to bleed MAS !!!

    Its a MYR 500 million long term contract .

    Why should Rozman attend after all he has tendered his resignation and his position was also based on share swap. Since share swap reversed, he should not part take in any decision making especially now that he has tendered his resignation.

     The same applied to AJ and Azhari, memang kulit tebal ko orang nie….

    Don’t know why other tender board committee chicken out. Be responsible lah , not just wanted a free first class ride and allowance .

    This will  give a free hand to AJ and Rozman to make hundreds of million ringgit decision.

    As mention many times , Amin proposed , Azhari support it , AJ and Rozman approved , all the pariah delivery boys who should be kick out ASAP before more irreverseable damage done .

    Rozman having a last kopek lah before leaving MAS by 31 July.

    Recap :
    on July 21, 2012 at 5:22 pm | ReplyGE Man
    xxxxxxxxxxx The finale on conspiracy and sabotages in MAS xxxxxxx
    The share suap is a very well planned conspiracy and sabotage mission’s to destroy MAS slowly if not immediately to kill off AA only competitors in Malaysia.
    The Pariah parachuted his armies (A.., Danny Rashy, Azhari, Rozman, Amin, Zakiah, Shane Nolan etc etc ) on search and destroy missions, forcing MAS to swallow poison’s pill after a poison’s pill so that MAS is so sick that MAS won’t be competitive to operate for at least the next 10-20 years.
    The list of conspiracy and sabotages that bleed’s MAS to death:
    1) Killing off Fire Fly B737-400/800 Jet Services since it is directly  competing with AA as a low cost community carrier and taking over some of its routes.
    2) Cut/Stop MAS profitable routes ( Bandung , Surabaya , Sydney etc etc ) so AA can take over the routes and mount additional flight.The rakyat had no choice but to pay what ever price AA put since they are monopolizing this routes.
    3) Re schedule / re timed MAS flight to odd hours ( Hong Kong ,  Beijing etc etc ) so that AA take the prime slot. MAS seat’s load factors dived.
    4) Signed the so called an AAX’s 35,000 passengers re-accommodation at  a very low fare. MAS loosing money at least MYR 1000 per AAX’s passengers carried and lost of sale able seats to would be full paying MAS passengers.
    5) Logo and re-branding, con-sultan fee’s paid , re-painting of more then 115 aircraft which will cost at least MYR 900,000.00 per aircraft that requires down time of at least 10 days.
    It will cost a whooping MYR 100 millions. Lost of aircraft utilization will cost money too to MAS. Luckily the change of logo and re-branding were restricted to A380. Even that will cost money for the respraying of the 6 A380!
    6) QPR sponsor worth MYR 10 million when AJ is crying MAS is bleeding.
    7) A380 seat re-configuration at the wimp and fancy of the Pariah which cost MAS at least MYR 4 million per ship set . With 6 unit A380 ordered , this will add an additional cost of MYR 24 million to MAS and the “old seats” to be scrap.
    8) The A380 ferry (joy rides) flight from Toulouse to Kuala Lumpur with some joy riders on board who are not related at all to the ferry flight formalities, incurring additional cost of sending them to Toulouse , hotels , daily allowances and lost of sale-able commercial seats, Kuala Lumpur – London and Kuala Lumpur – Paris .
    9) Lost of UN UNIFIL Lebanon lucrative charter flight to AAX. Giving
       an excuse of MAS don’t have any aircraft available to do it where’s else many aircraft laying idle due to routes cut and excess cabin crews had to be deployed to Golden Lounge to work.
    10) Lost of Fire Fly ATR 75-200 maintenance contract to SAE.
    11) Lost of Batavia Air and Lion Air B737-300/400 maintenance contract to AIROD.
    12) The would be B777 seat and IFE retrofit worth at least MYR 150 million for all 15 unit MAS B777. This B777 will be phased out in 3 years time yet a retrofit is initiated and as it is the seat and IFE served its purpose well.
    13) B737-800 steel brakes changes to carbon brakes which cost millions. AJ had issued a direct LOI/LA to one of carbon brakes manufacturer without going thru’ a normal company procurement procedure and WITHOUT Board approvals !!
    Using a carbon brakes is only economical if you use it since day one you buy the aircraft. Now MAS got to buy the new carbon brakes and discard/throw away/scrap the steel brakes inventory worth millions and MAS got to change tyre type from radial to bias tyre !!
    14) Two weeks ago in London Farnborough airshow,  AJ signed a MYR 5 billion contract for A380 Trent 900 Engine Total Care Maintenance Program with RR for as long as MAS is flying this A380 aircraft . No engineering and financial evaluation was carried out and NO BOARD approval sought. All decide by the TRIO , AJ , Azhari and Amin.
    15) Approximately 3 years ago MAS/PMB had sold 17 unit of their B737-400 classic aircraft to AAR and MAS leased it back (Sale and Leased Back ) from AAR until such time that all MAS new B737-800NG is delivered as replacement.
    Two weeks ago , during Farnborough Air show in London too, MAS Airlines Engineering Group (AEG) and someone had signed an agreement with AAR to purchase back 6 unit of this B737-400 classics.
    The surprising deal is that the purchase price per aircraft is MYR 19.8 million (USD 6.4 mil). The market price is only USD 2.5 million (MYR 7.75 mill) each . (Pls refer for aircraft prices)
    MAS is paying 2.5 times more then the market price !!!
    AND what is the logical explanation buying back this junk ??
    MAS will be milked by a whooping MYR 118.8 millions for this deal.
    As usual no engineering and financial evaluation was carried out and NO BOARD approval sought. All decide only by two persons and one of whom is an ex GE Man.
    16) Early this month (July), against all MAS procurement procedure and the first one in MAS history, Azhari had issued an LOI (Letter Of Intent) to LHT a contract worth MYR 500 million for the A330 Aircraft Component Support PBTH (Power By The Hour) , knowing that there is other bidders who had offered a lower price then LHT .
    Azhari is the first CEO of MAE (MAS Aerospace Engineering) history who issue LOI without Board Approval.
    He doesn’t have such authority, only tender department who can issue LOI/LA after BOD had approved it.
    A wrong procurement procedure, Azhari will bull doze this A330 LHT contract during this coming BTC (Board Tender Meeting) on Wednesday / 25 July 2012. He will try to shove it to the BOD throat.
    17) In the making, Azhari and Amin is now trying to do something about the B737-400 engine CFM56-7 PBTH (Power By The Hour) contract worth at least MYR 1.5 billion (minimum 10 years contract)( more then 200 engines) and source said it may be a direct nego again. One can expect where it will go. Just think who is maker!
    18) In the making think,Azhari and Amin is trying to figure out who will get the B737-800 / B777 / A380 / B747-400 APU maintenance contract worth more then a 1 billion ringgit . A total of more then 150 units of APU (Auxillary Power Unit) is to be contract out for maintenance soon.
    With 18 on the list above , My dear PM and BOD of MAS and Tan Sri chairman, YB YB , you must not stand still while MAS being screwed to death. MAS is BLEEDING ok!
    This will be the way to kill MAS as MAS be will be liable and inherit a long term high engineering operating cost, too high to sustain the business for at least the next 10-20 next years from now , how MAS will survive like this ? 
    A procurement manual is there to be followed so the tender and bidding is carried out in a transparent manner,how come one person or a TRIO are allowed to decide on this multi billion ringgit contract.
    At least least 3 bidders must participate to make the bidding process to be an advantage to MAS bottom line. Direct nego is a suicide !!
    The remaining parachuted fellows are the share suap parasites and should leave MAS, so much damaged done in the last 11 months..

    on July 22, 2012 at 3:47 pm | ReplyGE Man
    Dear showman,
    MAS has a whistle blower program in place to report any suspected wrong doing but how to complain if the committee is AJ and the biscuit lady…..
    All they do is sending a “young pang” meeting you and asking you questions and then silent……..
    Complaining to BOD ? You know who parachuted them.
    Got to thanks YB Wee CK for his blog site , other wise how to expose and complain ?
    YES, the only one who can stop all this bleeding is our PM . One phone call from him to AJ and (Khazanah) asking AJ to leave will do the job.
    If PM can reverse the share swap , he can do it again now to remove AJ and the kuncu kuncu’s.
    Chairman Md Nor and AJ wont give a damn to what ever UTUSAN had said.
    YES , the rot start long time before the share swap such as ill advised long term fuel hedging , selling of MAS assets, LSG contract etc etc.
    BUT with this Pariah’s army still inside , the number are colossal and in a period of only 11 month’s !

  9. Xplorer

    what the hell is happening with mas. i’m leaving the company but i hate to see mas in such a sorry state . i’ve known a lot of good and honest people working their ass up in mas . although i hate tony but on the positive side i wish our CEO is more like him , aggressively defending his company. come on aj , you should be aggressively and passionately defending MAS against airasia , i really hate to see mas being push around by airasia and bloggers as it was just too embarrassing. Nowadays mas had been a laughing stock in the aviation industry . mas really need a stronger leader to pilot it away from the storm.

  10. Ulat Bulu

    MAS does not need any AA croonies to sit in as MAS BOD. So now the Pariah TF is talking, shud have got all your arse out of MAS long time ago. AJ, it’s time that you and all the rest of Pariah TF croonies leaves MAS. The longer you holes stay in MAS the more money MAS will loose.

  11. AJ Budak Suruhan

    Aj is not only short. He is short sighted. He couldn’t see anything except his mentor, the pariah. Just ask around, no CEO of any other airline would sign the RA to uplift the 35000 AAX passengers with such low cost fares. MAS was made to relieve the burden of AAX and then rewarded the Pariah with he Sydney route.

    Now the Pariah can talk big. AJ, how could you be so stupid or you pretended to be stupid to look after the Pariah. NEVER SEEN A THICK SKIN GUY LIKE AJ IN MY LIFE.

  12. Anti Pariah

    AJ, examine the RA with AAX. Find way and mean to terminate it as it is not in the best interest of MAS to proceed as it will cause MAS to uplift AAX passengers with such low cost fares unheard of in the market.

    Only the clueless idiot will agree to sign such a RA. Wake up AJ you are CEO of MAS not AAX. Don’t pretend to be stupid.

    Please answer what GE Man has said in his comments regarding the proceedings in the Tender Board of a few days ago.

    What an idiot.

  13. GE Man

    AJ , you cut Bandung , Surabaya , AA increase frequencies…AJ you lay down your tools lah and leave MAS .
    The Star paper said ;
    “”It strengthened its hub via the introduction of Bandung-Penang, Bandung-Pekanbaru and Denpasar-Yogyakarta routes.
    It also increased the frequency for Bandung-KL and Denpasar-Surabaya routes. “”” 

    Thursday July 26, 2012
    AirAsia carries more passengers, raises capacity

    PETALING JAYA: AirAsia Bhd carried 8.29 million passengers in the April-to-June quarter, which was 13% more than 7.35 million a year ago.
    The low-cost carrier said in statement that capacity had increased by 13% to 10.46 million seats from 9.22 million a year ago, while the load factor was 1% lower to 79%
    Its fleet size increased to 100 planes against 93 last year.
    The airline’s leading position in Malaysia’s domestic and international market was strengthened by increasing frequencies on the Kuala Lumpur-Terengganu, KL-Langkawi, KL-Vientiane, Langkawi-Singapore and KL-Saigon routes utilising one new aircraft that was delivered at end-May.
    The total passengers carried was up by 10% to 4.9 million from 4.47 million in the previous corresponding quarter. The load factor was 80% versus 81%.
    As for Thai AirAsia, it posted a load factor of 79%, up 1% year-on-year, and carried 20% more passengers at 1.94 million.
    The increase was underpinned by a capacity expansion of 19% with the new Chiang Mai-Macau route and additional frequency for the new Bangkok-Trang route.
    Meanwhile, AirAsia’s Indonesian unit recorded a load factor of 78%, up 2% from a year ago on the back of capacity expansion and strong passenger demand.
    The number of passengers carried was 15% higher whereas capacity increased by 12% year-on-year.
    It strengthened its hub via the introduction of Bandung-Penang, Bandung-Pekanbaru and Denpasar-Yogyakarta routes.
    It also increased the frequency for Bandung-KL and Denpasar-Surabaya

  14. Ahmad Judi

    I cannot understand what are the unions doing ?
    |Scare of those suckers. Use the people force to get rid of those who made your life miserable.
    Actions actions speaks louder then words.
    MAS bleeding but male cabin crew already changed to new uniform ?
    Those suckers will suck MAS dried before they got kicked out .

  15. Ahmad Jahudi

    Ahmad Judi

    This is the mentality of our topLESS Management. Their shallow mentality is: changing logo, changing uniform, new organisational charts and more Business Plans will turn around MAS. This was how they have been doing things in MAS.

    Further, that clueless idiot also thought that by giving away profitable routes to Bandung, Sydney and Haneda on a silver platter to the Pariah, was part of his turning around plan. How stupid can one be.

    I don’t mind being paid RM250k a month for doing all these stupid things and the same times be little the graded staffs of being of low productivity.

    Mr Clueless, you are one of the major deadwood in MAS.

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